20 Nov 2011

Info on Fiocchi Tear gas used in #Tahrir #Nov19

-Ballistic: Fiocchi 8mm blank cartridge used a hollow ended plastic seal which is intended to rupture on Firing.
Made in Italy, but apparently the company has great deals w/ the US.

-Main Ingredient: Chloroacetophenone (CN) Phenacyl chloride

CN is still supplied to paramilitary and police forces in a small pressurized aerosol can known as “Mace” or tear gas.

-Symptoms This compound irritates the mucous membranes (oral, nasal, conjunctival and tracheobronchial). Sometimes it can give rise to more generalized reactions such as syncope, temporary loss of balance and orientation. More rarely, cutaneous irritating outbreaks have been observed and allergic contact permanent dermatitis.
Effects on:

Eye: Initial irritation typically resolves within 15 to 30 minutes following decontamination. Eye irritation may persist if the eyes are rubbed. Eye redness and accumulation of fluid in the tissues surrounding the eye (periorbital edema) may take 1 to 2 days to resolve.
In details:
  • Threshold concentrations: Immediate burning pain, spasmodic blinking (blepharospasm), tear production (lacrimation), eye redness, runny nose (rhinorrhea), coughing, sneezing, and pain, but usually no long term tissue damage.
  • Severe: Inflammation of the cornea (keratitis), inflammation of the conjunctiva (conjunctivitis), chemical burns, loss of the outer layer of the cornea (corneal epithelium), sensitivity to light (photophobia), and blurred vision. Partial eye opacity is possible and may be permanent.
  • Droplets of liquid or particles in the eyes may be corrosive and produce burns like those of a strong acid.
  • Projectile particles may injure any part of the eye causing perforation, which may lead to permanent partial vision loss.

Respiratory tracts: Respiratory adverse health effects, such as accumulation of fluid in the lungs (pulmonary edema), may occur immediately after exposure or can be delayed up to 12 to 24 hours.
In details:
  • Mild to moderate: Runny nose (rhinorrhea), coughing, sneezing, chest tightness, vocal cord spasm causing difficulty breathing, shortness of breath, and a choking feeling, burning sensation and pain of the nose and mouth, noisy breathing such as wheezing, salivation, metallic taste, nausea, vomiting (emesis).
  • Severe: Fluid build-up in the lungs (pulmonary edema) up to 12 to 24 hours after exposure, immediate or delayed narrowing of the large airways (bronchospasm), inflammation and consolidation of the airspaces in the lung (bronchopneumonia).
  • Pain, fear, and panic may result in agitation, fainting (syncope), increased heart rate (tachycardia), and/or mildly elevated blood pressure (hypertension).

Skin: Adverse effects to the skin occurring within 24 hours of exposure can be severe and may include redness, blistering, and broken blisters, with variable amounts of skin loss.
  • Mild to moderate: Irritation and pain. Moisture from humidity, sweat, or decontaminating water, may temporarily increase irritation and pain.
  • Severe: Delayed redness (erythema), blistering (vesication), and denuded areas.

FIRST AID Treatment
  • GENERAL INFORMATION: Initial treatment is primarily supportive. Most patient/victims require no medical attention and casualties are rare. In cases of inhalation, patient/victims with mild to moderate exposures generally improve rapidly following removal from the source of exposure and require no additional treatment. Patient/victims with more severe exposures require hospital admission for observation of lung injury or accumulation of fluid in the lungs (pulmonary edema) and skin injury.
  • ANTIDOTE: There is no antidote for chloroacetophenone (CN) toxicity.
  • EYE:
    • Immediately remove the patient/victim from the source of exposure.
    • Effects are normally self-limiting and do not require treatment.
    • For large particles or droplets in the eye, immediately wash eyes with large amounts of tepid water for at least 15 minutes.
    • Check eyes for the presence of particles of agent or pieces of tear gas canister. (Serious damage can occur if these are left in the eye.) Consider use of an eye cage to prevent direct pressure on the eye.
    • If large particles or droplets of agents are found, treatment for corrosive materials may be required.
    • Ophthalmic corticosteroid ointment may be applied after complete decontamination.
    • Seek medical attention immediately.
    • Immediately remove the patient/victim from the source of exposure.
    • Ensure that the patient/victim has an unobstructed airway.
    • Do not induce vomiting (emesis).
    • Seek medical attention immediately.
    • Immediately remove the patient/victim from the source of exposure.
    • Evaluate respiratory function and pulse.
    • Ensure that the patient/victim has an unobstructed airway.
    • If shortness of breath occurs or breathing is difficult (dyspnea), administer oxygen.
    • Assist ventilation as required. Always use a barrier or bag-valve-mask device.
    • If breathing has ceased (apnea), provide artificial respiration.
    • Monitor for vocal cords closing and preventing air from entering the lungs (laryngospasm), and treat it if it occurs.
    • Monitor the patient/victim for signs of accumulation of fluid in the lungs (pulmonary edema), such as difficulty breathing or shortness of breath (dyspnea) and chest tightness.
    • Seek medical attention immediately.
  • SKIN:
    • Immediately remove the patient/victim from the source of exposure.
    • See the Decontamination section for patient/victim decontamination procedures.
    • Early reddening (erythema) and a stinging sensation are transient and do not require treatment.
    • Seek medical attention immediately.

More Info n Reference:

-The Doc. on Google Doc.

1 comment:

  1. والله العظيم ياخواننا ما له أي علاقة نسب ب "غاز مسيل للدموع" إطلاقا!
    وله علاقة بأي دموع في الدنيا
    ده: غاز التهاب وتقلصات

    It's "NOT' tear gas at all!!!!
    It's: irritation+contractions Gas
    Too much worse than tear gas!